Jibanananda Das (February 17, 1899 – October 22, 1954; 6 Falgun, 1305 – 5 Kartik, 1361 BCE) was one of the leading modern Bengali poets and writers of the twentieth century. He is one of the pioneers of modernity in Bangla poetry.
Although Nazrul Islam influenced the first poem of Jibanananda, he became an explorer of the fundamental and different paths from the second poem. He began to gain popularity from the beginning of his death until the end of the twentieth century. When his birth anniversary celebrated in 1999, he became one of the most famous poets in Bengali literature.
The world of traditional nature and mythology of rural Bengal has become iconic in the life of Jibanananda, in which he is known as ‘Rupsi Bengal Poet’. Buddhadev Basu has described as the most lonely poet. Annadashankar Roy called him the ‘purest poet’. Many of the critics consider him the chief poet of Bengali literature after Rabindranath and Nazrul.
Jibanananda’s Banalta Sen poetry book awarded at the Nikhil Banga Rabindra Sahitya Sammelan (1953). The best poetry book received the Sahitya Akademi Award from the Government of India In 1955. Among the famous poems ofJibanananda Das, Rupsi Bangla, Banalta Sen, Mahaprabhitivi, Bella Abella Kalbella, Best Poetry, etc.
AlthoughJibanananda Das is primarily a poet, he has authored and published several essays. However, before his death in 1954, he wrote 21 novels and 126 short stories, none of which published in his lifetime. His life spent in extreme poverty. During the latter part of the twentieth century, his influence on Bengali poetry has seamlessly printed.
Birth and childhood
In January 1908, Jibanananda Das, an eight-year-old, admitted to the fifth grade at Brajmohan School. While in school, he started composing in Bangla and English. He also tended to paint his pictures at the time. In 1915, Brajmohan passed the Matriculation (now secondary or SSc) examination in the first division from the school.
After two years, repeat the previous results in the Intermediate (Higher Secondary) examination from Brazmohan College; He then left Barisal for admission to Calcutta University. In 1919, he received his B.A. degree with Honors in English from Presidency College, Kolkata. In that year, his first poem published in the Baishakh volume of the Brahmaist magazine.
The name of the poem was Varsha Abahon. The poet’s name not printed in the poem, only the honorable Sri word written. However, his full name printed on the anniversary index of the magazine’s year: Sree Jibanananda Das, B.A.
Literature and life struggles
At the beginning of puberty, Jibanananda’s poetry began to develop. When Deshbandhu Chittaranjan Das died in June 1925, Jibanananda Das wrote a Brahminical poem called ‘Deshbandhu Prayan’ in his memory, which published in Bangabani. The poem later replaced its first poem, Jhora Palok.
Reading the poem, poet Kalidas Roy commented, “This Brahmin poem must have been written under the pseudonym of an established poet”. It was only in 1925 that his first essay was published in three consecutive volumes in the Brahmavadi magazine, at the shrine of the late Kalimohan Das.
In the same year, when the poem ‘Neelima’ published in Kolol magazine, it attracted the attention of many young poets. Gradually his writings appeared in various literary journals in Kolkata, Dhaka and other places; Among these were the well-known magazines of the time, Kallol, Ink and Pens, Pragati etc.
In 1927, the first poetical poem of the poet was published by Jhara Palk. From that time onwards he started writing ‘das’ instead of his family surname ‘Dasgupta’. He lost his job at City College, just months after the first poem was published. Student dissatisfaction with the college was centered on religious festivals, and as a result the college’s student enrollment rate dropped dramatically.
Jibanananda was the youngest of the college’s teachers and the first troubled college student fired him. The deportation was the cause of a long life-long mood. Even his poetry faced critical criticism in the Calcutta literature. The renowned literary critic of the time, poet-literary poet Sajikanth Das, was inspired by the ruthless criticism of his writings in Saturday’s letter.
The poet joined Prafulla Chandra College in the small town of Bagerhat as there was no work to do in Kolkata. However, he returned to Kolkata only two months later. At that time he was on the board of the Presidency. He was in dire financial distress due to lack of jobs. He worked as a home teacher for a living, and earned a little from writing.
At the same time he was looking for a job in various educational institutes. In December 1929, he joined Ramayash College in Delhi as a professor. Here, his tenure is only four months. On May 9, 1930, he was married to the goddess of the labyrinth. She was married in Dhaka city, Rammohan Library of Brahma Samaj adjacent to Sadarghat in Old Dhaka.
Lavanya Gupta was studying at Eden College, Dhaka. At the wedding of Jibanananda, poet Buddhadev Bose, Ajit Kumar Dutt were present. She did not return to Delhi after marriage. Then for about five years, Jibanananda Das was inactive.
Occasionally worked as an agent for an insurance company; Did business with borrowing money from younger brother, But none of this has lasted. In the meantime, the unemployment of Jibanananda was not the cause of family distress as his father was alive and his wife was living in Barisal. In 1931, the first child of the poet, Manjushri was born.
About that time, in his camp, the poem was published in the Identity paper edited by Sudhindranath Dutt and at the same time it was widely criticized in Calcutta literature. The apparent content of the poem was deer hunting on a hot night. Many read this poem and identify it as obscene.
He wrote several short stories and novels during this period of his unemployment, struggles and frustrations; – but did not publish them in his lifetime. In 1934, he composed a series of lyrics, which later formed the main part of his Rupsi Bangla poem. Neither did these poems rejoice.
After his death in 1954, he collected poems in 1957 to publish the Rupsi Bangla poem by his sister Sucharita Das and poet Gehendra Guha, a well-known poet of Mayukh.
Return to Barisal
In 1935, Jibanananda Das returned to his old school, Brajmohan College, which was then affiliated to the University of Calcutta. He joined the English department as a lecturer there. At that time, Buddhadev Bose, Premendra Mitra and Samar Sen were struggling to find a new poem called Kobita.
In the first issue of the magazine, a poem by Jibanananda was called ‘Before Death.’ Rabindranath Tagore reads the poem In a letter to Buddha, he remarked in the poem as ‘Citrarupamaya.’ The poem was published in the newspaper the number of his legendary poem Bonolota Sen.
This 18-line poem is currently considered one of the most popular Bengali language poems. The following year, a gray manuscript of Jibanananda’s second poem was published.
Jibanananda had already arranged everything in Barisal. In November 1936, his son, Samarinda, was born. In 1938, Rabindranath edited a collection of poems called Bangla Poetry, which contained the poem before Jibanananda’s death.
Another famous poem was published in 1939, edited by Abu Sayed Ayyub and Hirendranath Mukhopadhyay; It includes four of Jibanananda’s poems – Birds(pakhera), Shakun, Banalta Sen and Naked solitary hands(Nogno Nerjon haet).
In 1942, the poet’s father died and in that year, his third poem, Banalta Sen, was published. The book released as part of the ‘Ak Poysay Akti’ series from the Kobita-vobon of Buddhadev Bose and its page number was sixteen.
Buddhadev Bose was one of the patrons of Jibanananda and many of Jibanananda’s poems published in his edited Kobita magazine. In 1944, his fourth poetry, Mahaprithibi published. He had to publish three of his earlier poems at his own expense, but he got a publisher for the Mahaprithibi.
The impression of war is evident in this poem published during World War II. Returning to Barisal in need of a job, Kolkata was very drawn to Jibanananda. He enjoyed the expansive range of Kolkata.
He always thought of migrating to Calcutta. When the opportunity arose, Khulna from Barisal on the steamer then sailed to Kolkata via Benapole on the train.
Return to Kolkata again
After World War II, India’s independence movement became stronger. Jinnah-led Muslim leaders demanded the formation of a separate state for the Muslims.
As a result, it became inevitable for Bengal to be divided, as the eastern part was Muslim majority and Hindus were the majority in the western part. At that time in 1947, the communal riots broke out in Bengal.
Sometimes always been vocal in support of communal harmony. When the Hindu-Muslim riots broke out in Kolkata in 1946, the poet wrote the 1964-47 poem. Some of the partition, he took leave from BM College, came to Calcutta.
He stayed in Kolkata for a few months with an extended vacation. He came to East Bengal after that but it was temporary. In 1947, some of his family members left Bangladesh, then East Pakistan, and settled in Calcutta.
In Calcutta, he edited the Sunday literary section of “Dainik Swaraj”. But the job was permanent for only seven months. This is a departure from the dignity of a prose essay on Kazi Nazrul Islam.
In 1948, he wrote two more novels – “Maliban” and “Sutarith,” but, like the previous ones, has also left them unpublished. His fifth poem, The Seven Stars of Whale, was published In December of this year. Jibanananda’s mother, Kusumkumari Das, died in Kolkata that same month.
In the meantime, Jibanananda Das had made a place for himself in the literary society of Kolkata. He elected vice-president of an organization called ‘Contemporary Literature Center’ and appointed one of the editors of the association’s mouthpiece conflict paper.
Sometimes he taught at Kharagpur College. His popular poetry book, Banalta Sen, published in 1952 in a revised edition by Signet Press. The book gained the readership and won the “Rabindra-Smriti Award” announced by Nikhil Bengal Rabindra Sahitya Sammelan.
Shortly before his death, when he offered a teaching job at Howrah Girls College, his unrest in Kolkata resolved. Jibanananda Das’s best poem published in May 1954. The Government of India awarded him the Sahitya Akademi Award in 1955.
He was beginning and ending his career in teaching. After completing his MA, he started studying law when he needed on the boarding of college in Kolkata. During this time, he started teaching as a tutor at City College, conducted by the Brahma Samaj in Calcutta in 1922.
In 1928, when the troubles with Saraswati worship started, the college authorities cut him off with some other teachers. For a brief period of his life, he employed in the literary department of Swaraj, a daily newspaper of Kolkata.
He has taught in many educational institutions of Bangladesh and India in the present, including City College, Kolkata (1922-1928), Bagerhat College, Khulna (1929); Ramayash College, Delhi (1930-1931), Brajmohan College, Barisal (1935-1948), Kharagpur College (1951-1952), Barisha College (now ‘Vivekananda College,’ Kolkata) (1953) and Howrah Girls College, Kolkata.
His career was not smooth at all. The lack of a job or a healthy living gave him death. He is knocking on the doorstep for a job. His wife, Lavanya Das, has recovered a bit of a lack of livelihood by teaching at the school. He was working at Howrah Girls College at the time of her premature death in 1954.
During his two years of unemployment, he worked as an agent for an insurance company and worked mainly as a home educator. Besides, he tried for years. Poverty and paucity were the shadows of his career.
Jibanananda Das married Labano Gupta, daughter of Rohinikumar Gupta, on 9th May 1930 (Baishakh 1337, 26th Baisakh), at the Braxmasmaj temple in Dhaka. He survived by his daughter Manjushri Das and son Samanand Das.
Probably he started writing poems in his childhood as a result of mother Kusumkumari Das. In 1919 a poem written by him was published. This is his first published poem. The name of the poem is Barsha Abahan. It published in the Baisakh number of 1326 in the Brahminical magazine.
At that time, he used to write the name of Sri Jeevananda Dasgupta. From 1927, he started writing under the name Jibanananda Das. On June 16, 1925, after the demise of Deshbandhu Chittaranjan Das, he wrote a poem titled ‘Deshbandhu Prayanay, ‘ which published in the auditorium of Bango Bani 1332 (Bangla).
However, when Dineshranjan Das published his poem titled Nilima in 1332 (1926 AD) in Kallol magazine, he exposed to the bubble of modern Bengali poetry. His 7 poems published in a lifetime.
His poetic prose did not appear in the poem titled Jharapalak, published in the first place, but it witnessed the influences of poets Kazi Nazrul Islam, Mohit Lal Majumder and Satyendranath Dutta.
However, he quickly gained individualism. The second volume of long poems, published in gray manuscripts(Dusar Pandulipi), became a manifestation of his own poetic technique. His features became a topic of discussion in the landscape of Bengali literature.
The poems towards the end lacked finances. After the revelation of the seven-star whale, allegations of lewdness raised against him. Jibanananda very worried about the devaluation of his poetry. He intended to finance his work, though, in the end, it was not possible.
However, the poet himself was a staunch critic of his compositions. So even though he wrote more than eight hundred poems, he allowed only 262 poems published in various newspapers and poems during his lifetime. Even if the complete prepared manuscript of Rupsi Bangla in Trang, he could not decide to publish it.
He, however, named the poem as a tragedy of Bengal (ASTO NILIMA), which discovered after his death and published under cover of Rupsi Bangla. Another manuscript discovered after death, which published in the name of Abela Kalbela. Another script found after death, which published in the name of Abela Kalbela. In his lifetime, his only identity was the poet. He wrote and published some essays on the need for money.
However, plenty of poor stories and novels written, none of which made arrangements for publication. He also wrote, “Literary Notes” in more than sixty-five accounts, most of which have not yet been published (2009).
Jibanananda Das was never known as a lifelong novelist. His novels, published by 2015, numbered 21 and short stories over a hundred. He wrote completely short novels and short stories and never published one in a lifetime.
After his death, The manuscripts of the novel-story manuscript discovered. As in poetry, he is different from his predecessors in fiction, and he is completely different from his contemporaries.
His story-based novels focus on the foundations of biological elements. But that is not to say that these works are not autobiographical. His best-known novel is Malyaban, but “Malyaban” is not his disturbing debut novel.
Jivanand Das’s managerial identity has not held in any special status till date. However, he wrote several essays and articles, each of which carried a signature of very basic thought.
The compilation of his essay written about poetry after his death – in 1362 (Bangla). It compiled fifteen articles published in various newspapers during his lifetime. These articles widely read.
Beyond these famous fifteen articles, there are more articles, articles, criticisms of Jibanananda. The volume of this composition is not very high. The calculation shows that his literary-social-education writings number 30, Biography and Bibliography are number 9 in the national essay, number 3 in commemoration essay and number 7 in various articles.
Besides, three more draft articles have indexed. Buddhadev Bose planned an essay in the poem (1345, Baishakh) mainly to publish the poets’ prose. It was in this source that Jibanananda Das wrote his first critical essay called ‘kobitar Kotha.’
This is the beginning of this article-
Not everyone is a poet. Some are poets; Poets — because they have the essence of thought and experience inside imagination and imagination in their hearts, and have helped them for many past centuries, as well as with the new poetics of the modern world. But ‘can’t help everyone; Those who have the essence of the experience and thought inside their imagination and imagination helped; Coming to a wide variety of activities, they relieved to create poetry.
His prose linguistics is also remarkable. Although the opening sentence short-lived, he develops a thick knit long sentence. A combination of prose words, such as ‘and,’ ‘o,’ etc., and punctuation, such as commas, semicolons, “dashes,” with which no contemporary Bengali writer-reader was familiar.
In fact, the syntax of his essays was not well known in modern times. Even to the attentive reader, this can seem not very easy. Most of Jibanananda’s prose works are formaheshi. Jibanananda Das wrote essays in articles on literature, education, society, and all three disciplines.
Acceptance and criticism
Although known for being a remarkable poet during his lifetime, he could not attain fame, for which his propaganda was also responsible; He was a big man. However, shortly after his death, he recognized as one of the pioneers of modern poetry in Bengali. Many books have been written on the life and poetry of Jibanananda and still are in Bangla.
Beyond that, he wrote in English in a book by Clinton B. Seeley, A Poet’s Apert. In addition to English, his poems have translated into several European languages including French. Although he is best known as a poet, his greatest manuscript since his death in 2009 has been the publication of 14 novels and hundreds of stories.
On October 14, 1954, he injured in a tram accident in Ballygunge, Kolkata. His body trapped in a tramp catcher. The bones of the wrists, thighs, and ribs broken. Upon hearing the screams of the critically injured Jibanananda, he rushed to the nearby tea shop’s owner Chunnilal and others.
He admitted to Shambhunath Pandit Hospital. During this time many young poets, including Dr. Gelander Guha, tried their best to bring Jibanananda’s medicine to life.
Poet-writer Sajikanth Das took the individual initiative in this regard. At his request, the then Chief Minister of West Bengal, Dr. Bidhan Chandra Roy, came to see the poet and ordered the injured poet’s medical treatment, although there was no improvement in the treatment.
However, the situation of livelihoods is becoming increasingly complex. The poet eventually became suffering from pneumonia. He died at Shambunath Pandit Hospital, Kolkata, at 11:30 am on October 22, 1954, failing all efforts of doctors and service members.
We strive for fairness and accuracy of Jibanananda Das. If you observe something that doesn’t look right, contact us!