Jibanananda Das (February 17, 1899 – October 22, 1954; 6 Falgun, 1305 – 5 Kartik, 1361 BCE) was one of the leading modern Bengali poets and writers of the twentieth century. He is one of the pioneers of modernity in Bangla poetry.
Although Nazrul Islam influenced the first poem of Jivananda, he became an explorer of the fundamental and different paths from the second poem. He began to gain popularity from the beginning of his death until the end of the twentieth century. When his birth anniversary celebrated in 1999, he became one of the most famous poets in Bengali literature.
The world of traditional nature and mythology of rural Bengal has become iconic in the life of Jivananda, in which he is known as ‘Rupsi Bengal Poet’. Buddhadev Basu has described as the most lonely poet.
Annadashankar Roy called him the ‘purest poet’. Many of the critics consider him the chief poet of Bengali literature after Rabindranath and Nazrul.
Jivananda’s Banalta Sen poetry book awarded at the Nikhil Banga Rabindra Sahitya Sammelan (1953). The best poetry book received the Sahitya Akademi Award from the Government of India In 1955.
Among the famous poems ofJibanananda Das, Rupsi Bangla, Banalta Sen, Mahaprabhitivi, Bella Abella Kalbella, Best Poetry, etc.
Although Jibanananda Das is primarily a poet, he has authored and published several essays. However, before his death in 1954, he wrote 21 novels and 126 short stories, none of which published in his lifetime. His life spent in extreme poverty.
During the latter part of the twentieth century, his influence on Bengali poetry has seamlessly printed.
Birth and childhood
Jibanananda Das was born on 18 February 1899 in the city of Barisal under the Bengal Presidency of British India (now Bangladesh). His ancestors were residents of Bikrampur pargana in the Dhaka district of Bangladesh. His grandfather Sarvananda Dasgupta (1838-85) relocated from Vikrampur to Barisal.
Sarvananda Dasgupta was a Hindu by birth; Later, he was initiated into Brahma. He participated in the early stages of the Brahma Samaj movement in Barisal and was widely praised for his humanitarian work. Jivananda’s father Satyananda Dasgupta is the second son of Sarvananda.
Jivananda’s mother, Kusumkumari Das, was a householder, but he wrote poems. His well-known poem Ideal Boy (when the boy will grow up in our country, or grow up to work or grow up in words) is still a text for the children. Jibanananda Das was the eldest child of the parents; His nickname was Milu.
His brother Ashokananda Das was born in 1908 and his sister Sucharita Das was born in 1915. Jainandan’s childhood education started at home, as his father was opposed to attending school at an early age. In the morning, the Upanishads listen to the recitation of the father’s voice in the voice of his father.
Although shy, he had a passion for sports, gardening, traveling and swimming. He has been to many places with an uncle since childhood. Once in childhood, you got into a difficult illness. Mother and maternal grandmother traveled to places like Laxmou, Agra, Delhi, along with poet Chandranath of the song of laughter.
Although his title at birth was “Dasgupta,” in the early thirties, Jivananda started writing only Das, excluding “Gupta.”
In January 1908, Jibanananda Das, an eight-year-old, was admitted to the fifth grade at Brajmohan School. While in school, he started composing in Bangla and English. He also tended to paint his pictures at the time. In 1915, Brajmohan passed the Matriculation (now secondary or SSc) examination in the first division from the school.
After two years, repeat the previous results in the Intermediate (Higher Secondary) examination from Brazmohan College; He then left Barisal for admission to Calcutta University. In 1919, he received his B.A. degree with Honors in English from Presidency College, Kolkata. In that year, his first poem published in the Baishakh volume of the Brahmaist magazine.
The name of the poem was Varsha Abahn. The poet’s name not printed in the poem, only the honorable Sri word written. However, his full name printed on the anniversary index of the magazine’s year: Sreejivananda Das, B.A.
Literature and life struggles
At the beginning of puberty, Jivananda’s poetry began to develop. When Deshbandhu Chittaranjan Das died in June 1925, Jivananda wrote a Brahminical poem called ‘Deshbandhu Prayan’ in his memory, which was published in Bangabani.
The poem later replaced its first poem, Jhora Palak. Reading the poem, poet Kalidas Roy commented, “This Brahmin poem must have been written under the pseudonym of an established poet”. It was only in 1925 that his first essay was published in three consecutive volumes in the Brahmavadi magazine, at the shrine of the late Kalimohan Das.
Reading the poem, poet Kalidas Roy commented, “This Brahmin poem must have been written under the pseudonym of an established poet”. It was only in 1925 that his first essay was published in three consecutive volumes in the Brahmavadi magazine, at the shrine of the late Kalimohan Das.
In the same year, when the poem ‘Neelima’ published in Kolol magazine, it attracted the attention of many young poets. Gradually his writings appeared in various literary journals in Kolkata, Dhaka and other places; Among these were the well-known magazines of the time, Kallol, Ink and Pens, Pragati etc.
In 1927, the first poetical poem of the poet published by Jhara Palk. From that time onwards he started writing ‘das’ instead of his family surname ‘Dasgupta’. He lost his job at City College, just months after the first poem published. Student dissatisfaction with the college centered on religious festivals, and as a result, the college’s student enrollment rate dropped dramatically.
Jibanananda Das was the youngest of the college’s teachers and the first troubled college student fired him. The deportation was the cause of a long life-long mood. Even his poetry faced critical criticism in the Calcutta literature.
The renowned literary critic of the time, poet-literary poet Sajikanth Das, inspired by the ruthless criticism of his writings in Saturday’s letter. The poet joined Prafulla Chandra College in the small town of Bagerhat as there was no work to do in Kolkata. However, he returned to Kolkata only two months later. At that time he was on the board of the Presidency. He was in dire financial distress due to lack of jobs. He worked as a home teacher for a living and earned a little from writing.
At the same time, he was looking for a job in various educational institutes. In December 1929, he joined Ramayash College in Delhi as a professor. Here, his tenure is only four months. On May 9, 1930, he married to the goddess of the labyrinth.
He married in Dhaka city, Rammohan Library of Brahma Samaj adjacent to Sadarghat in Old Dhaka. Lavanya Gupta was studying at Eden College, Dhaka. At the wedding of Jivananda Das, poet Buddhadev Bose, Ajit Kumar Dutt was present. She did not return to Delhi after marriage.
Then for about five years, Jivananda was inactive. Occasionally worked as an agent for an insurance company; Did business with borrowing money from younger brother, But none of this has lasted. In the meantime, the unemployment of Jivananda was not the cause of family distress as his father was alive and his wife was living in Barisal.
In 1931, the first child of the poet, Manjushri was born. About that time, in his camp, the poem published in the Identity paper edited by Sudhindranath Dutt and at the same time it widely criticized in Calcutta literature.
The apparent content of the poem was deer hunting on a hot night. Many read this poem and identify it as obscene. He wrote several short stories and novels during this period of his unemployment, struggles and frustrations; – but did not publish them in his lifetime.
In 1934, he composed a series of lyrics, which later formed the main part of his Rupsi Bangla poem. Neither did these poems rejoice. After his death in 1954, he collected poems in 1957 to publish the Rupsi Bangla poem by his sister Sucharita Das and poet Gehendra Guha, a well-known poet of Mayukh.