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Taj Mahal is a royal tomb located in Agra in Uttar Pradesh, India. The Mughal emperor Shahjahan built this magnificent monument to the memory of his wife Arjumand Banu Begum, known as Mumtaz Mahal.

The construction of the mausoleum began in 1632 AD, which completed around 1653 AD. Although there has been much controversy over who designed the crypt, it is clear that a team of artistic designers and craftsmen created the tomb with Ustad Ahmed Lahore, who is attending the ambitions to become the chief architect of the Taj Mahal.

The Taj Mahal (sometimes called simply Taj) regarded as a new symbol of Mughal architecture, whose construction style combines Persian, Turkish, Indian and Islamic architecture. Although the majestic mausoleum of white marble much admired, the Taj Mahal is, in fact, a complex intact architecture. It listed in 1983 as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

The Taj Mahal is one of the most leading seven wonders of the world. It was then called the “One of the most acclaimed masterwork of world heritage.”

Inspiration

Taj Mahal is one of the most beautiful sights in the world. Incredibly memorable commentary on love. A magnificent symbol of Islamic architecture, which symbolizes peace and beauty. In 1631, Shah Jahan, who was one of the prosperous emperors of the Mughal period, became deeply grieved over the death of his second wife, Mumtaz Mahal.

Then Mamataz Mahal died while giving birth to his fourth daughter, Gauhar Begum. After the death of Mumtaz, the construction of the Taj Mahal began. The original tomb completed in 1648 and its surrounding buildings and gardens built five more years later.

Agra, in 1663, the French traveler François Bernier wrote:

I will end this letter with a description of two great tombs identified as Agra’s chief superiority over Delhi. Emperor Jahangir made one in honor of his father Akbar; And other Emperor Shah Jahan raised another in memory of his wife Taj Mahal, this extraordinary and celebrated beauty. Which her husband was so fascinated that he remained steadfast to her during his lifetime and was so much affected by his death that he followed to the grave.

Impact

The Taj Mahal built on various traditional designs, especially according to Persian and Mughal architecture. Specific models have been made precisely like the Timur and Mughal buildings. Among them is the Gur-i-Amir of Timur, the predecessor of the Mughal Empire in Samarkand, the shrine of Humayun, the shrine of Imam-ud-doula (sometimes called the Child Taj), and the Delhi Jama Masjid built by Shah Jahan in Delhi.

Under his patronage, the Mughal building reached a new level of refinement. Where previous Mughal buildings were erected on red sandstone, Shah Jahan introduced the introduction of white rich marble stone.

Garden

In the front of the Taj Mahal, a large Fourfold(Mughal garden formerly divided into four parts) built. Divisions are divided into 16 flower gardens, using a quarter-way up to 300 m x 300 m. In the middle of the shrine and between the door and in the middle of the garden, there is a high marble stone water square and a straight line to the north-south to reflect the Taj Mahal.

In addition, there are several tree-lined roads and fountains in the garden. Charbagh Garden was the first Mughal emperor Babar in India, which designed as a Persian garden. Charbagh meant to reflect the garden of heaven. In the writings of the Mughal period, a Persian poet described the paradise garden as an ideal garden, which would be full of abundance.

Water or water had played a significant role in this narrative. In the inscription, four rivers formed from a mountain in the middle of the garden of heaven, and it flows separately to the north, south, east and west of the garden. Almost all the Mughals are quadrilateral, with shrines or camps in the middle of the garden. But the Taj Mahal is different in this regard because its shrine is located on one side of the garden rather than in the middle of the garden.

The newly discovered Mahtab Bagh, on the other side of the river Jamuna, reveals another kind of information; the Jamuna River was included in the design of the garden so that it could be interpreted as a river of heaven. The layout of the garden and its architectural features, such as its fountain, brick or marble road and geometric brick lined flower beds, are exactly like the Slimmer and designed by the same engineer Ali Mardan.

In the meantime, the abundance of orchards, daffodils, various fruit trees and other herbs are known. With the subsequent decline of the Mughal emperors, the garden also declined. The British took over the maintenance of the Taj Mahal during the English rule. They change the landscape and give the appearance of a formal London garden.

Garden

In the front of the Taj Mahal, a large charbagh (Mughal garden was formerly divided into four parts) was built. Divisions are divided into 16 flower gardens, using a quarter-way up to 300 m x 300 m. In the middle of the shrine and between the door and in the middle of the garden there is a high marble stone water square and a straight line to the north-south to reflect the Taj Mahal.

In addition, there are several tree-lined roads and fountains in the garden. Charbagh Garden was the first Mughal emperor Babar in India, which was designed as a Persian garden. Charbagh is meant to reflect the garden of heaven. In the writings of the Mughal period, a Persian poet described the paradise garden as an ideal garden, which would be full of abundance.

Water or water has played a major role in this narrative. In the inscription, four rivers are formed from a mountain in the middle of the garden of heaven, and it flows separately to the north, south, east and west of the garden. Almost all the Mughals are quadrilateral, with shrines or camps in the middle of the garden.

But the Taj Mahal is different in this regard because its shrine is located on one side of the garden rather than in the middle of the garden. The newly discovered Mahtab Bagh, on the other side of the river Jamuna, reveals another kind of information; the Jamuna River was included in the design of the garden so that it could be interpreted as a river of heaven.

The layout of the garden and its architectural features, such as its fountain, brick or marble road and geometric brick lined flower beds, are exactly like the Slimmer and designed by the same engineer Ali Mardan. In the meantime, the abundance of orchards, daffodils, various fruit trees and other herbs are known.

With the subsequent decline of the Mughal emperors, the garden also declined. The British took over the maintenance of the Taj Mahal during the English rule. They change the landscape and give the appearance of a formal London garden.

Other buildings

The Taj Mahal surrounded on three sides by walls like sandstone fortifications. There are no walls along the river. Outside this wall there are more tombs, including the tombs of Shahjahan’s other wives and a large tomb of Mumtaz’s beloved attendants. The architecture mainly made of red sandstone, which looks like the small Mughal general tomb of that time.

On the inside (garden) walls are pillars and roofs. It was commonly seen in Hindu temples and was later designed in the mosque of the Mughals. The walls connected by a dome-shaped building, from which several places come into view, which used as an observation post.

Which (Taj Mahal) is currently being used as a museum. The main gate or entrance to the Taj Mahal also made of marble. The design and style of the door remind me of the architecture of the Mughal emperors. Its arches resemble arched tombs and their pistachio arches aligned with the tomb’s calligraphy or engravings. Its roof designed similar to other sandstone buildings They are beautiful geometric shapes.

At the very end of the courtyard are two large sandstone buildings with open portions of the tomb. The rear of them is parallel to the east and west walls. The two buildings are exactly like mirrors of one another.
The mosque on the east side is the mosque, the other being Jawab (north), whose main purpose to preserve the balance (which used to house guests during the Mughal period). The answer is not just its mehram and its floor design where the floor of the mosque cut with black stone for the prayers of 569 Muslims.

The initial design of the mosque is similar to other buildings built by Shah Jahan. Especially its Mosque-e-Jahannuma or Delhi Jame Mosque – a large house with three domes. The places of worship of the mosques during the Mughal period divided into three parts. A couple of small prayer places on either side of the large prayer hall.

The Taj Mahal has a huge dome on top of every prayer hall but the place is open. The construction of the building completed in 1643.

The tomb

The foundation

It is at the base of the Taj Mahal is the white marble tomb. Which, like other Mughal tombs, has mainly Persian leaders, such as symmetrical buildings with Iowans, a bow-shaped door, large domes on top. The tomb stands on a square altar.

The base of the building is huge and few rooms. In the main room, memorial monuments of Mumtaz Mahal and Shahjahan have set up, their graves one level below. The base is essentially a cube with broken corners, about 55 meters per side (right, see floor plan). On the long side is generous pistachio or large bow-shaped path, Ivan’s construction, with a similar bow-shaped gallery on top.

This major bow-shaped arcade grew and formed the front, attached to the roof of the building above. On the other side of the crescent, the excess pistachios have moved behind upwards. This feature of pistachios being used in a similar manner in the corners. The design perfectly well-formed and the same on each side of the building. There are four towers, one at each corner of the base, standing towards the broken edge.

Dome

The most attractive feature of the tomb is the marble dome above the grave. Its size is roughly the size of a building’s base, which is about 35 meters. Due to its height, the dome mounted on a 7-meter-high cylinder drum. Due to its shape, this dome sometimes called the onion dome or the guava dome.

The top of the dome decorated with a paddle flower, which further enhances its height. Above the dome is an old copper or scissor bar with traditional Persian and Hindu traditions. The importance of the massive dome is because it has four smaller domes at its four corners. The smaller domes look like the more massive dome.

Their pillars rose from the base of the tomb to the roof. Small domes also have old casks or copper bars. A tall mossy headpiece or bouquet raised on the side of the base wall and visible at the height of the dome. Padmafuls are also in small domes and bouquets.

Pinnacle

On the large dome, there is an old mossy crown, like a crown. The pinnacle made of gold before the 1800s, but currently made of bronze. This peak is an outstanding example of the aggregate of decorative elements of Persians and Hindus.

At the top of the summit is a moon, which is an Islamic element, and the horn of the mountain tilted to heaven or heaven. The summit moon and the horned horn on the large dome form a traditional symbol similar to that of the Hindu god Shiva.

Tower

The minarets are at the corners of the altar – four large outposts each with a height of more than 40 meters. The symmetry of the Taj Mahal also noticed in the minarets. The outposts have designed in the traditional minaret of the mosque, where the muezzin offers the call for prayers. Each tower divided into two equal portions with two porches.

At the very top of the minaret is the last porch on which is a similar umbrella of tomb umbrellas. The umbrellas of the towers have done the same thing as did the design of the Padma Phool on the top. Each of the minarets nudged to the outside of the altar so that it does not fall on the main tomb even if it is broken.

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