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Description of Tajikistan
Tajikistan formally the Republic of Tajikistan may be a mountainous, inland country in Central Asia with a part of 143,100 km2 (55,300 sq mi). Associated with a calculable population of nine,275,828 people. It’s seagirt by the Islamic State of Afghanistan to the south, Asian nation to the west, Kirghizia to the north. And China to the east. the standard homelands of the Tajik folks embody current Tajikistan still as components of the Islamic State of Afghanistan and Asian nation.
The territory that currently constitutes Tajikistan was antecedently home to many ancient cultures, as well as the town of Sarazm of the Neolithic and therefore the Bronze Age, and was later home to kingdoms dominated by folks of various faiths and cultures. As well as the Oxus civilization, Andronovo culture, Buddhism, Patriarch Christianity, Zoroastrianism, religious belief and Islam. The realm has been dominated by various empires and dynasties, as well as the Achaemenid Empire, the Sasanian Empire, the Hephthalite Empire, the Samanid Empire, Mongol Empire, Timurid family line, the berth of Bukhara, the Russian Empire, and after the state. Inside the state, the country’s fashionable borders were drawn once it had been a part of the Asian nation as an associate autonomous republic before changing into a full-fledged Soviet republic in 1929.
On nine Sept 1991, Tajikistan became an associate freelance sovereign nation once the state disintegrated. A war was fought quickly when independence, lasting from 1992 to 1997. Since the top of the war, freshly established political stability and economic aid have allowed the country’s economy to grow. Like all alternative Central Asian neighbor states, the country, junction rectifier by President Emomali Rahmon since 1994. It criticized by a variety of non-governmental organizations for authoritarian leadership, lack of spiritual freedom, corruption and widespread violations of human rights.
History of Tajikistan
Cultures within the region are dated back to a minimum of the fourth millennium BCE. As well as the Bronze Age Bactria–Margiana archaeologic advanced, the Andronovo cultures and therefore the pro-urban website of Sarazm, a United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization World Heritage website.
The earliest recorded history of the region dates back to regarding five hundred BCE once a lot of, if not all, of recent Tajikistan, was a part of the Achaemenid Empire. Some authors have conjointly prompt that within the seventh and sixth century BCE components of recent Tajikistan. As well as territories within the Zeravshan depression, fashioned part of Kambojas before it became part of the Achaemenid Empire. Some authors have conjointly prompt that within the seventh and sixth century BCE components of recent Tajikistan, as well as territories within the Zeravshan depression. The fashioned part of Kambojas before it became part of the Achaemenid Empire. When the region’s conquest by Alexander the good it became a part of the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom, a successor state of Alexander’s empire. Northern Tajikistan (the cities of Khujand and Panjakent) was a part of Sogdia.
The states and cities of Tajikistan
A group of city-states that was overrun by Scythians and Yuezhi unsettled tribes around one hundred fifty BCE. The Silk Road underwent the region and following the expedition of Chinese human Zhang Qian throughout the reign of Wudi (141–87 BCE) industrial relations between dynasty China. And Sogdiana flourished. Sogdians contend a serious role in facilitating trade and conjointly worked in alternative capacities, as farmers, carpet weavers, glassmakers, and woodcarvers.
The Kushan Empire, a group of Yuezhi tribes, took management of the region. Within the initial century metallic element and dominated till the fourth-century metallic element throughout which era Buddhism, Patriarch Christianity, Zoroastrianism, and religious belief were all experienced within the region. Later the Hephthalite Empire, a group of unsettled tribes, rapt into the region and Arabs brought Islam within the early eighth century. Central Asia continuing in its role as an advert crossroads, linking China, the steppes to the north, and therefore the Muslim region.
The Samanid ruler Mansur I (961–976)
19th-century painting of lake Zorkul and an area Tajik someone
It was briefly underneath the management of the Tibetan empire. And Chinese from 650–680 and so underneath the management of the Umayyads in 710. The Samanid Empire, 819 to 999, restored Persian management of the region and enlarged the cities of the urban center. And Bukhara (both cities square measure nowadays a part of Uzbekistan) became the cultural center of Persia and therefore the region was called Khorasan.
The Kara-Khanid berth conquered Transoxania (which corresponds more or less with the modern Republic of Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, southern Asian nation and southwest Kazakhstan). And dominated between 999–1211. Their arrival in Transoxania signaled a definitive shift from Iranian to Turkic predominance in Central Asia, however, step by step the Kara-khanids became assimilated into the Perso-Arab Muslim culture of the region.
During Genghis Khan’s invasion of Khwarezmia within the early thirteenth century. The Mongol Empire took management over nearly all of Central Asia. In but a century the Mongol Empire bust-up and trendy Tajik came underneath the rule of the Turko-Tatar berth. swayer created the Timurid kinfolk and took management of the region within the fourteenth century.
Modern Tajik fell underneath the rule of the berth of Bukhara throughout the sixteenth century. And with the empire’s collapse within the eighteenth century, it came underneath the rule of each the Emirate of Bukhara and berth of Kokand. The Emirate of Bukhara remained intact till the twentieth century however throughout the nineteenth century. For the second time in world history, an ECU power (the Russian Empire) began to overcome elements of the region.
Tajik is the official language of Tajik. In the Islamic State of Afghanistan (where the Tajik folk’s minority forms the principal a part of the broader Persophone population). This language is a smaller amount influenced by Turkic languages. It thought to be a kind of Iranian and in and of itself has co-official language standing. The Tajik of Tajik has diverged from Persian as spoken in the Islamic State of Afghanistan and Persia because of political borders, geographical isolation. The standardization method and therefore the influence of Russian and neighboring Turkic languages.
The quality language predicated on the northwestern dialects of Tajik (region of the recent major town of Samarqand). Which is somewhat influenced by the neighboring Uzbek language as a result of geographical proximity. Tajik additionally retains various archaic components in its vocabulary, pronunciation. And synchronic linguistics that lost elsewhere within the Persophone world, partially. Because of its relative isolation within the mountains of Central Asia.
The climate of Tajik is sharply continental and changes with altitude. Within the warm-temperate depression areas, summers square measure hot and dry. The mean temperature in the Gregorian calendar month is eighty-one °F (27 °C) in Khujand (Khujand) and eighty-six °F (30 °C) in Kŭlob (Kulyab), farther south. The corresponding Jan figures square measure thirty °F (−1 °C) and thirty-six °F (2 °C), severally. In terribly cold winters, temperatures of −4 °F (−20 °C) and lower are recorded. Annual precipitation is slight and ranges between vi and ten inches (150 and 250 millimeters).
However, is higher within the Gissar depression. within the highlands conditions square measure different: the mean Jan temperature for Murghob within the Pamirs is −3 °F (−20 °C). And temperatures will drop to −51 °F (−46 °C). During this space precipitation barely reaches a pair of to three inches a year, most of it falling in summer. Dampish air lots move from the west up the valleys. Suddenly reaching low-temperature areas and manufacturing domestically significant precipitation. Principally significant snow of the maximum amount as thirty to sixty inches of annual accumulation.
The overwhelming majority of Tajikistan is area unit Muslim, largely of the Sunni Ḥanafī college. A tiny low share of Muslims area unit Ismaʿīlī Shīʿite, placed primarily within the Pamirs. The Christian population preponderantly Russian. However, most ethnic Russians have left since the disintegration of the country.
Dushanbe, on the Varzob watercourse, that the capital of Asian countries. On the east bank of the watercourse Rudaki Park, named for the classical writer. A sculpture of him stands below the associate ornate mosaic arch. Close maybe a huge Tajik flag, flying from a lofty flagpole. The traditional Tajik person Ismaili Somoni commemorated with sculpture and gilded arch.
National repository of the Asian country
The National repository of Asian countries may be a repository in the capital of Tajikistan. The capital town of the Asian country.
The repository includes a total space of twenty-four 000 money supply. It that over fifteen 000 money supply area unit exhibition halls. It composed of 4 exhibition departments—Department of explanation, Department of Ancient and Medieval History, Department of recent and modern History, and Department of Fine and Applied Arts.
The city of Khorugh is the capital of the Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region in Tadzhikistan. It additionally the capital of the Shughnon District of Gorno-Badakhshan. It’s a population of twenty-eight,000. Khorugh is two,200 meters on top of the water level within the Pamir Mountains at the confluence of the Gunt and Panj rivers. The town is finite to the south and the north.
Khujand, typically spelled Khodjent and called Leninabad from 1936 to 1991. It that the second-largest town of Tadzhikistan and therefore the capital of Tajikistan’s northmost province, Sughd. Khujand is one in all the oldest cities in Central Asia, chemical analysis back concerning two,500 years. Set on the Syr Darya watercourse at the mouth of the Fergana vale, Khujand was serious.
Panjakent could be a town within the Sughd province of Tadzhikistan on the Zeravshan watercourse. With a population of thirty-three,000. it was once Associate in the Nursing ancient city in Sogdiana. The ruins of the recent city area unit on the outskirts of the fashionable town. The Sarazm vital Bird space lies downstream of town on the tugay-vegetated field of the watercourse.